Ancient Sami was a powerful fortified town whose ruins are found in Lapitha Mountain, over the port town of Sami Kefalonia. This town was an autonomous and independent state with its own coin inhabited from the Paleolithic Times. A strong and densely populated town with strong fortifications, it was located on top of the cliff. Several references of Ancient Sami are found in Homer's poems (Heliad, Odyssey) when Sami fought in the Trojan War. Though, in 188 B.C, Sami lost its autonomy and freedom during the siege from the Romans.
During the Roman times, Ancient Sami flourished again due to the trade development and the increasing population. At that time, they built luxurious houses and public buildings. Excavations have brought to light parts of the citadel built during the Hellenistic Period and some Cyclopean walls situated in Paleokastro and Agioi Fanendes, from where the view is spectacular. The walls included 22 entrances, parts of an ancient theatre and rich tombs that date back to the 3rd century B.C. The view from Ancient Sami to the sea and the inland is great.