The defeat of the Hungarian army near Mohac (1526), the soldier confrontations on the southern areas of Slovakia, the occupation of Budin (1541), the Turkish concentration on the rich middle-Slovak mining territory all this called for organized defense of the endangered regions. In Banska Stiavnica the parish church (Old Castle) was rebuild to a fortress and defense town gates were build on the access paths. The main fortress against the Turks became the renaissance building of the New Castle built in 1564 - 1571. It was a part of a signaling equipment used for informing about the approaching enemy on the territory from Pukanec to Lubietova. There were 21 canons around the castle.
The permanent exhibition documets the soldier´s situation, the weaponry of the fortresses against the Turks, Hungarian and Turkish weapons, painted shooting targets (they are rooted in Turkish invasions), portraits of the Kohary family that significantly participated in battles against the Turks.
The New Castle offers a remarkable panorama of the historical town center from tower telescope too, his urbanistic development and the extraordinary landscape from the cloister of the castle.