Iraq is located in the Middle East and borders with Turkey, Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic and overlooks the Gulf of Oman. The capital of Iraq is Baghdad and throughout the country the official language is Arabic although other languages are spoken such as Kurdish, Persian, English amongst others.

The Euphrates and the Tigris rivers are the two main features of the landscape as well as the mountainous region in the northeast, while the west consists of arid desert land.

Although this is a land of conflicts and violence, Iraq was the scene of many great civilizations that supposedly lived in a glorious Gardens of Eden and Babylon’s bountiful Hanging Gardens. Iraq was the center point of the Sumerian, Babylonian and Assyrian empires between the seventh century BC and AD100, who left behind them a great deal of architectural and cultural heritage.

Ancient Baghdad was the center of learning, a major stop along the Silk Road. The museums of Iraq were once testaments to this cultural learning, full of amazing artifacts and relics; unfortunately many of these were damaged or looted following the conflict.

The Arch of Ctesiphon is a remarkable work of engineering, constructed in the 3rd century BC and must not be missed, as well as the Sumerian city of Ur, one of the most breathtaking archeological sites in the country with buildings dating back to 4000 BC.

The climate is very hot in summer with mild winters.

  • 10

    Citadel of Erbil

    The Erbil Citadel is a tell or occupied mound, and the historical city centre of Erbil in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. It has been claimed that the site is the oldest continuously inhabited town in the world.