Fortifications are military constructions or buildings designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and also used to solidify rule in a region during peace time. Humans have constructed defensive works for many thousands of years, in a variety of increasingly complex designs. The term is derived from the Latin fortis ("strong") and facere ("to make").

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    Agra Fort

    The Agra Fort is a UNESCO World Heritage site located in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. It is about 2.5 km northwest of its more famous sister monument, the Taj Mahal. The fort can be more accurately described as a walled city.

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    The Alhambra the complete Arabic form of which was Calat Alhamra, is a palace and fortress complex located in Granada, Andalusia, Spain.

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    Al-Khutm Ruins

    The ruins at Al-Khutm are basically a stone fort, a tower made of rock with a diameter of 20 meters. It is located 2 km west of Bat.

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    Angustia, Roman Fort (Ruins), Bretcu

    Angustia Roman fort Ruins near Bretcu village, Covasna County, Transylvania, Romania. The Roman settlement of Angustia and the Roman fort is located on the east side of the village.

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    Arg-e Bam

    The Arg-e Bam was the largest adobe building in the world, located in Bam, a city in Kerman Province of southeastern Iran. The origin of this enormous citadel on the Silk Road can be traced back to the Achaemenid Empire (sixth to fourth centuries BC) and even beyond.

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    Badaling, Great Wall of China

    Badaling is the site of the most visited section of the Great Wall of China, approximately 80 km northwest of urban Beijing city in Yanqing County, which is within the Beijing municipality.

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    Bahla Fort

    Bahla Fort was built in the 13th and 14th centuries, when the oasis of Bahla was prosperous under the control of the Banu Nebhan tribe.

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    Bar Fortress (Ruins)

    Bar Fortress Ruins in Bar town located on the Riv River in the Vinnytsia Oblast (province) of central Ukraine.

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    Bastion Fortifications, Dub

    Bastion Fortifications near Dub village in the administrative district of Gmina Tomaszow Lubelski, within Tomaszow Lubelski County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland.

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    Berlin Wall

    The Berlin Wall was a barrier that divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989. Constructed by the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany), starting on 13 August 1961, the wall completely cut off (by land) West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and from East Berlin until it was opened in November 1989.

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    Bordj El Berod (Ruins), Essaouira

    Bourj El Baroud is a ruined watchtower located somewhat south of the mouth of Oued Ksob near Essaouira, Morocco. This structure is located on a broad sandy beach directly across from Phoenician ruins at the southeast tip of the main islet of Iles Purpuraires.

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    Brancovenesti Castle

    On a high terrace near Mures River was a Roman fortification, then in the Middle Ages (13th century) there was a fortress surrounded by ditches, visible today. This city was apparently destroyed by the great Mongol invasion of 1242.

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    Brest Castle

    Brest Castle was evolving in the course of several centuries from the Slavonic fortified settlement Berestye that had appeared at the turn of the 10th and 11th centuries at the confluence of the Mukhavets River into the Bug River, amid islands, formed by the rivers.

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    Brody Castle

    Brody Castle is a former fortress in the city of Brody, part of Lviv Oblast, Ukraine. The first information about the construction of the castle in Brody town refers to the 1580s.

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    Budy Fortress (Ruins), Vamosatya

    Budy Fortress (Ruins), Vamosatya. The Budy Fortress, built in the 13th or 16th century and becoming ruined in the Middle Ages, is organically related to the history of Vamosatya Village.

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    Bzovik Fortress

    Founded by Lampert from family Hunt-Poznanyi together with son Nikolas and wife Zofia, sister of King Ladislav. The monastery church was built in the first half of the 12th century, despite its mention for the first time in written records in 1285.

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    Caernarfon town walls

    Caernarfon's town walls are a medieval defensive structure around the town of Caernarfon in North Wales. The walls were constructed between 1283 and 1292 after the foundation of Caernarfon by Edward I, alongside the adjacent castle.

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    Calamita Fortress (Ruins), Inkerman

    Calamita Fortress Ruins. At the top of the cliff towering ruins of the Monastery of the medieval fortress Calamita. Built the fortress was in the early XV century on the site of the old Byzantine ruler of the Crimean strengthen the Christian principality of Theodoro.

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    Calnic Fortress (Citadel)

    The Calnic Citadel is a citadel located in Calnic, Alba County, in the Transylvania region of Romania. It was built by a nobleman whose family later sold it to the local ethnic German Transylvanian Saxon community at a time when the area belonged to the Kingdom of Hungary.

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    Camboglanna (Roman Fort), Hadrian's Wall

    Camboglanna (with the modern name of Castlesteads) was a Roman fort. It was the twelfth fort on Hadrian's Wall counting from the east, between Banna (Birdoswald) to the east and Uxelodunum (Stanwix) to the west.