The dominant feature of Litomysl is the monumental Renaissance castle dating from the years 1568–1581. The buildings of the castle precincts are not only exceptional for their architectural refinement, but have also inscribed themselves in history as the birthplace of the Czech composer, Bedrich Smetana. On the elongated square, which is one of the largest in the Czech Republic, stands a town hall of Gothic origin and a series of Renaissance and baroque houses, many with arcades and vaulted groundfloor rooms. One of the most important of these is the House At the Knights with its remarkable facade. In the past the town was also a significant religious centre; it was in Litomysl in 1344 that the second bishopric to be established in Bohemia was founded, although it ceased to exist during the Hussite Wars. In the 19th century, the Litomysl Grammar School was of great importance.
The cultural traditions of the town go much beyond regional and national frontiers. The exquisite interiors of the castle, especially the baroque castle theatre, the amphitheatre in the castle park and Smetana House, all offer varied programmes of concerts and theatrical performances and thus enrich the life of the town throughout the year. In 1994 the meeting of the seven Central European presidents took place at the castle. The chateau complex was included on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1999.
Litomysl is also home to the "Portmoneum", a museum of the artist and writer Josef Vachal in the home of his admirer Josef Portman, who commissioned Vachal's murals and painted furniture in the house.