Fortifications are military constructions or buildings designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and also used to solidify rule in a region during peace time. Humans have constructed defensive works for many thousands of years, in a variety of increasingly complex designs. The term is derived from the Latin fortis ("strong") and facere ("to make").

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    Saalburg (Roman fort)

    The Saalburg is a Roman fort located on the Taunus ridge northwest of Bad Homburg, Hesse, Germany. It is a Cohort Fort belonging to the Limes Germanicus, the Roman linear border fortification of the German provinces.

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    Salimgarh Fort, Delhi

    Salimgarh Fort was built in 1546 AD, in Delhi, in a former island of the Yamuna River, by Salim Shah Suri, son of Sher Shah Suri.

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    Sarmizegetusa Regia

    Sarmizegetusa Regia (Sarmisegetusa), was the capital and the most important military, religious and political centre of the Dacians prior to the wars with the Roman Empire. Erected on top of a 1200 m high mountain, the fortress, comprising six citadels, was the core of a strategic defensive system in the Orastie Mountains (in present-day Romania).

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    Sataniv Castle (Ruins)

    Sataniv Castle Ruins in Sataniv village in the Horodok Raion, Khmelnytskyi Oblast, Ukraine.

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    Seat Fortress of Suceava (Ruins)

    Suceava is the place of several medieval sites that are closely linked with the history of Principality of Moldavia. The most significant and the best preserved in time is the Seat Fortress of Suceava (Cetatea de Scaun a Sucevei) or Suceava Citadel, a medieval castle situated on the eastern edge of the contemporary city.

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    Simatai, Great Wall of China

    Simatai, a section of the Great Wall of China located in the north of Miyun County, 120 km northeast of Beijing, holds the access to Gubeikou, a strategic pass in the eastern part of the Great Wall.

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    Soroca Fort

    Soroca Fortress is a historic fort in the Republic of Moldova, in the modern-day city of Soroca. The city has its origin in the medieval Genoese trade post of Olchionia, or Alchona. It is known for its well-preserved stronghold, established by the Moldavian Prince Stephen the Great in 1499.

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    St. Elias Church, Toporivtsi

    St. Elias Church in Toporivtsi village, Novoselytsia Raion, Chernivtsi Oblast, Ukraine. Mediaeval fortified court (church, walls, bell-tower), built around 1620 year by local noble Miron Barnovski, which later became prince of Moldavia, he is burried in the interior of the fortified church, one of the masterpieces of the medieval moldavian architecture.

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    St. Martin Fortified Church, Batovce

    St. Martin Fortified Church, Batovce in the Levice District in the Nitra Region of Slovakia. The church was built sometime in the first half of the 13th century (maybe a little bit later).

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    Stolzenburg Citadel, Slimnic

    Stolzenburg Citadel in Slimnic commune located in Sibiu County, Romania. Middle age fortress, built 14-15 century, abandoned late 18th century. Citadel can be visited.

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    Suomenlinna or Sveaborg, until 1918 Viapori, is an inhabited sea fortress built on six islands and which now forms part of the city of Helsinki, the capital of Finland.

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    Targu Mures Fortress

    In 1492 Prince Stefan Bathory ordered for a castle-fortress to be erected around the Franciscan monastery and church. A few of the original elements have been preserved, among them wall fragments on the Southern and Western sides, the tower on the Southern wing, attached to the furriers' bastion, and ruins of the South-Western tower, included nowadays in the tanners' bastion.

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    The moat surrounding the former manor house, Siennow

    The moat surrounding the former manor house in Siennow village in the administrative district of Gmina Zarzecze, within Przeworsk County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland. The moat length is 103 m.

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    The shaft surrounding the former manor house, Siennow

    The shaft surrounding the former manor house in Siennow village in the administrative district of Gmina Zarzecze, within Przeworsk County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland. The shaft length is 112 m.

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    The Thick Tower, Sibiu

    The thick tower, built in the 16th century, is a massive building made of rock at the bottom and brick at the upper part. The tower has several levels for defence and a cannon platform. The white and yellow coloured tower has a peculiar outlook with the holes and windows of different sizes and forms.

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    Tighina (Bender) Fortress

    Tighina Fortress was first mentioned as an important customs post in a commerce grant issued by Moldavian hospodar Alexandru cel Bun to merchants from Lvov on October 8 1408. The document is written in Old East Slavic and the place is named - Tyagyanakacha. The name Tighina is seen in documents since the second half of the 15th century.

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    Tighina (Bender) Fortress, Old Fort

    This is the old mediaeval fort of Tighina Fortress, which was first built in the 15-16'th Centuries by the princes of Moldavia. Occupied by the Ottomans in 1538 (in a campaign lead by the Sultan Soliman the Magnificent), the fort was strenghtened in 1541 and became the center of an Ottoman "raya" (in which were included the surrounding Moldavian villages).

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    Tiryns is a Mycenaean archaeological site in Argolis in the Peloponnese, some kilometres north of Nauplion. Tiryns was a hill fort with occupation ranging back seven thousand years, from before the beginning of the Bronze Age.

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    Turret 26B (Brunton), Hadrian's Wall

    Turret 26B (Brunton) is located just to the west of Brunton House, between it and the A6079. It is preserved with upstanding remains up to 2.8 metres (9.2 ft) high, and forms part of a 69 metres (75 yd) extant section of Hadrian's Wall.

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    Turret 52A (Banks East), Hadrian's Wall

    Turret 52A (Banks East) is situated by the road east of Banks village. Excavations in 1933 uncovered remains of the demolished Turf Wall abutting the turret's east wall. The turret was in use from around the early 2nd century until at least the end of the 3rd century.

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    Turret 7A, Hadrian's Wall

    Turret 7A is located in Denton Burn, in between Thorntree Drive and Brignall Gardens off the A186. During the construction of a nearby house in 1923 a sestertius coin dating to the reign of Emperor Trajan was discovered. Another coin was found in 1929.

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    Tustan Fortress

    Tustan is a unique monument of history and architecture of IX - XIII centuries, that has no analogues in Europe. This is a place where history can turn back and become part of the Ukrainian culture of the Middle Ages.

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    Vindobala (Rudchester Roman Fort), Hadrian's Wall

    Vindobala was a Roman fort at the modern-day hamlet of Rudchester, Northumberland. It was the fourth fort on Hadrian's Wall, after Segedunum (Wallsend), Pons Aelius (Newcastle) and Condercum.